Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

Increase or decrease secretion of thyroid hormone gives a huge impact on the overall body functions. Here we see about the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, which may help to act as an alarm sign to check your thyroid on time.

Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism ( decreased thyroid secretion ):

  • Tiredness and weakness, people will have dull and lazy feel and it is quite easy form them to sleep even for 12-14 hours a day.
  • Dry and course skin, often feel cold, very much sensitive to cold temperature with cool peripheral extremities
  • Puffy face, hands and feet called myxedema and peripheral edema
  • Increased hair loss and diffuse alopecia ( generalissd loss of hair all over the body)
  • Difficult in concentrating and poor memory
  • Constipation
  • Weight gain with poor appetite
  • Difficulty in breathing (dyspnea)
  • Decreased heart rate and rhythm ( bradycardia )
  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Delayed tendon reflex relaxation ( delay in the relaxation of muscle after contraction, seen well on the calf muscles )
  • Intially menorrhagia ( heavy menstural bleed ) later it goes into oligomenorrhagia ( less menstrual bleed ) or amenorrhagia ( no mensturation )
  • Parasthesia ( tingling or prickling sensation, which occurs now and then, often on the skins of hand and foot )
  • Hearing impairment
  • Carpel tunnel syndrome Reference – Orthoinfo

Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism ( increased thyroid secretion) :

  • Hyperactive, irritability and dysphoria, they always will be in the state of dissatisfaction and uneasiness
  • Heat intolerance and profuse sweating
  • Warm and moist skins
  • Weight loss with increased appetite
  • Palpitations and tachycardia (increased heart rate and rhythm)
  • Goiter( abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland )
  • Diarrhea
  • increased urination
  • tiredness and weakness
  • muscle weakness and peripheral degeneration of muscles
  • Upper eyelid gets retracted causing the eyeball to protrude out called exophthalmia.
  • Oligomenorrhagia and loss of libido
  • Gynecomastia

Not all the symptoms are subjective but when you come across 4-5 at a time, it is better to consult your physician.


Harrison’s principle of internal medicine, 19th edition.

Thyroid hormone – Synthesis and functions

Often you will tend to hear about thyroid hormone very much correlated with the body function. Whenever you get deviated from the regular activities, the foremost questions arise will be like check your thyroid, what js your T3 and T4 levels ?? Rite !!!! So why these hormone have special concern? What are their functions and how their imbalance will impact our body ? Let’s have a look…

Secretions of thyroid hormone :

Thyroid hormone secretes,

Synthesis of thyroid hormone is controlled by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from anterior pituitary gland and iodine is the key element required for the synthesis of T3 and T4.

Functions of T3 and T4 :

Functions of thyroid hormone on specific bodily mechanisms:

  • Stimulate carbohydrate metabolism
  • stimulate fat metabolism
  • Increased requirement of vitamins
  • maintain basal metabolic rate (BMR)

All these factors will help to maintain tan the body weight under control.

Functions of thyroid hormone on heart and blood vessels:

  • Increased blood flow and cardiac output
  • Maintain the heart rate
  • strengthen the heart
  • Maintain the blood pressure mainly on the arteries.

Functions on respiration :

Increase the rate and depth of respiration thereby increasing the oxygen consumption of the body

Functions on gastrointestinal tract:

  • Increase appetite and food intake
  • increase digestive juice secretion
  • Increase intestinal motility and provide effective digestive process

Functions on muscles and nervous system :

In general thyroid hormone increase the rapidity of cerebral function and also helpful for maintaining the proper sleep cycle. Thyroid hormone plays an essential role for body builders.

Functions on other hormones :

For normal sexual functions, thyroid hormone needs to be approximately normal. Thyroid hormone indirectly regulate the function of other hormones like insulin, glucagon, growth hormone and corticosteroids.

Functions of calcitonin :

  • Increase the bone density by increasing the calcium deposits on the bone
  • Decrease the blood calcium level
  • Decrease the osteoclastic (bone destructive cell) activity

* The role of thyroid hormone on the calcium regulation is of significantly less importance as compared to the parathyroid hormone.

Any imbalance in the secretion of thyroid hormone will cause either hyperthyroidism (increased secretion ) or hypothyroidism ( decreased secretion) which will have their own consequences attributed to the above functions.Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism


References :

Textbook of medical physiology by Arthur C.Guyton

Ganong’s review of medical physiology


Is diabetes a disease?

          It is so common nowadays to say ” yes, i am diabetic”.. if you reach 40 years of age it became mandatory to have a check with your blood sugar level…if you are not diabetic, can you say “yes, hurray!!!” , ha ha no definitely not and you cannot…have to monitorize it regularly to check the alarming sound “am i turning diabetic!!!!” as if it is the pride of our birth my god!!!

 So what is diabetes??is it a disease????

My answer may surprise you but it is true that, DIABETES IS NOT A DISEASE..It is only a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated called “hyperglycemic”. It is all about the role of a single hormone called insulin whose main role is to balance the blood glucose level by triggering the cells to take up the blood glucose and utilise it for its function.


So the cause of diabetes are,

  • Either due to less insulin production or no insulin 
  • Or due to lack of receptors in the cell to receive the insulin
  • or sometimes the combination of the both

So it is all about to regulate the blood sugar level…what does it matter??? Yes, it matters a lottt…Though diabetes is only a condition, it is as important as every major diseases and should be deal with atmost importance. …when there is an imbalance, it has its own effects on every parts of the body. When it goes uncontrol, it starts to rule you unconditionally…

But why there is a sudden increase in this condition on recent centuries??? It is not only genetically drivened one( type 1 diabetes maybe exceptional which is out of an autoimmune reaction where there is no/lack of insulin secretion), but this sudden elevation in the type 2 diabetic conditions are mainly influenced by our life style and environmental factors. Yes offcourse the reason for diabetes are multifactorial. But here today, in this blog let us focus more on the lifestyle we lead and the environment we live that turning into an alarming cause…people less than 40yrs are so prone to type 2 diabetes nowadays and all these are not all of a sudden attack…


  • Obesity
  • living a sedentary life
  • unhealthy diet
  • improper meal timing
  • stress
  • less or no physical activity
  • improper sleep cycle
  • habits like smoking, alcohol8B0FE721-7475-437C-B2D9-109E10439E69-4341-000003B43276AFCB

Are they seeming healthy??? Do you fall under any of these category!!!Then yes, you are under 40% risk for diabetes.. but not to panic…Nothing is delayed than a good start. Even if you are diabetes, you can still keep it under control.


  1. If you are diabetic, have a regular check on your blood sugar level and take the prescribed medications accordingly. No single case are the same, so never compare your condition with the others. And do not take the medication without your physicians consultation.
  2. Check with your BMI(body mass index) and have a control over it. BMI inbetween 19-25 kg/m2 is considered to be healthy
  3. quit the habits if any
  4. Have a balanced diet. It is not about avoiding carbohydrate or fats and taking ample of proteins and fibers will save you from diabetes. Each and every macro and micro nutrients are essential for a proper metabolism irrespective of how often you eat. So it is all about what you eat and how much you eat and when you eat.
  5. Have physical activity. From the basic stretches till the hardest swimming , it is countable. Being physically active and being healthy are directly proportional. The more you work, the more healthy you feel. And again, this has to correlate with the diet you take.
  6. Improper sleep cycle is a slow killer. It will mess up your entire body mechanism. All needed is 6 hrs of undisturbed sleep and always give a gap of 2 hrs inbetween your dine and the bed time.. It is still ok to have a short nap in a day only if your body asks for it. It should not be a practice of sedentary lifestyle.
  7. I know Stress-free life is not possible to apply in the current scenario but it is all about how much importance we give for each and everything. Try to have work-life balance. It is very much necessary to have replenishments now and then.


From all these things, i would like to emphasis that, diabetes is not a dreadful disease to fear off. But when we dont Consider it properly and carefully it may turn up into the etiology for so many dreadful diseases.