Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

Increase or decrease secretion of thyroid hormone gives a huge impact on the overall body functions. Here we see about the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, which may help to act as an alarm sign to check your thyroid on time.

Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism ( decreased thyroid secretion ):

  • Tiredness and weakness, people will have dull and lazy feel and it is quite easy form them to sleep even for 12-14 hours a day.
  • Dry and course skin, often feel cold, very much sensitive to cold temperature with cool peripheral extremities
  • Puffy face, hands and feet called myxedema and peripheral edema
  • Increased hair loss and diffuse alopecia ( generalissd loss of hair all over the body)
  • Difficult in concentrating and poor memory
  • Constipation
  • Weight gain with poor appetite
  • Difficulty in breathing (dyspnea)
  • Decreased heart rate and rhythm ( bradycardia )
  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Delayed tendon reflex relaxation ( delay in the relaxation of muscle after contraction, seen well on the calf muscles )
  • Intially menorrhagia ( heavy menstural bleed ) later it goes into oligomenorrhagia ( less menstrual bleed ) or amenorrhagia ( no mensturation )
  • Parasthesia ( tingling or prickling sensation, which occurs now and then, often on the skins of hand and foot )
  • Hearing impairment
  • Carpel tunnel syndrome Reference – Orthoinfo

Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism ( increased thyroid secretion) :

  • Hyperactive, irritability and dysphoria, they always will be in the state of dissatisfaction and uneasiness
  • Heat intolerance and profuse sweating
  • Warm and moist skins
  • Weight loss with increased appetite
  • Palpitations and tachycardia (increased heart rate and rhythm)
  • Goiter( abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland )
  • Diarrhea
  • increased urination
  • tiredness and weakness
  • muscle weakness and peripheral degeneration of muscles
  • Upper eyelid gets retracted causing the eyeball to protrude out called exophthalmia.
  • Oligomenorrhagia and loss of libido
  • Gynecomastia

Not all the symptoms are subjective but when you come across 4-5 at a time, it is better to consult your physician.


Harrison’s principle of internal medicine, 19th edition.

Thyroid hormone – Synthesis and functions

Often you will tend to hear about thyroid hormone very much correlated with the body function. Whenever you get deviated from the regular activities, the foremost questions arise will be like check your thyroid, what js your T3 and T4 levels ?? Rite !!!! So why these hormone have special concern? What are their functions and how their imbalance will impact our body ? Let’s have a look…

Secretions of thyroid hormone :

Thyroid hormone secretes,

Synthesis of thyroid hormone is controlled by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from anterior pituitary gland and iodine is the key element required for the synthesis of T3 and T4.

Functions of T3 and T4 :

Functions of thyroid hormone on specific bodily mechanisms:

  • Stimulate carbohydrate metabolism
  • stimulate fat metabolism
  • Increased requirement of vitamins
  • maintain basal metabolic rate (BMR)

All these factors will help to maintain tan the body weight under control.

Functions of thyroid hormone on heart and blood vessels:

  • Increased blood flow and cardiac output
  • Maintain the heart rate
  • strengthen the heart
  • Maintain the blood pressure mainly on the arteries.

Functions on respiration :

Increase the rate and depth of respiration thereby increasing the oxygen consumption of the body

Functions on gastrointestinal tract:

  • Increase appetite and food intake
  • increase digestive juice secretion
  • Increase intestinal motility and provide effective digestive process

Functions on muscles and nervous system :

In general thyroid hormone increase the rapidity of cerebral function and also helpful for maintaining the proper sleep cycle. Thyroid hormone plays an essential role for body builders.

Functions on other hormones :

For normal sexual functions, thyroid hormone needs to be approximately normal. Thyroid hormone indirectly regulate the function of other hormones like insulin, glucagon, growth hormone and corticosteroids.

Functions of calcitonin :

  • Increase the bone density by increasing the calcium deposits on the bone
  • Decrease the blood calcium level
  • Decrease the osteoclastic (bone destructive cell) activity

* The role of thyroid hormone on the calcium regulation is of significantly less importance as compared to the parathyroid hormone.

Any imbalance in the secretion of thyroid hormone will cause either hyperthyroidism (increased secretion ) or hypothyroidism ( decreased secretion) which will have their own consequences attributed to the above functions.Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism


References :

Textbook of medical physiology by Arthur C.Guyton

Ganong’s review of medical physiology


Role of calcium in the body

Calcium is the fifth abundant element in the body which plays a vital role in skeletal structural units. The total calcium in the body is 100-170 gms, in which 99% present in the bones. The normal serum calcium levels are between 9-11 mg/dl. Values that are lower/higher than this will have its own consequences.

Factors that control the calcium homeostasis are parathyroid hormone, calcitonin by thyroid hormone, vitamin D and dietary intake of calcium and phosphate.

 Roles of calcium in the body  :

A large role in the formation of bones and teeth and maintance of skeletal structures :

The organic matrix of the bones and teeth are composed of calcium and phosphate in the larger amount. Hormonal imbalance like hypo/hyper secretion of thyroid,  parathyroid, corticosteroids, and sunlight exposure will have a major effects on bone density and skeletal structures.

For membrane permeability :

Apart from sodium and potassium, ionised form of calcium in the extracellular fluid also have a role in membrane permeability, thus helps in balancing the inner and outer fluid content of the cells.

For normal heart rhythm :

Calcium ions are essential for the contraction of heart muscles thus help in maintaining the proper rhythmicity of the heart beat. Low blood calcium levels will increase the risk of ventricular tachycardia ( too rapid contraction of the lower chamber of the heart).

For neuromuscular excitability and muscle contraction :

Calcium ions are required for the electrical signalling process to generate impulse for neuromuscular excitability and muscle contraction. Low serum calcium level can cause hyper irritability and tetany ( muscle spasm) with characteristic carpopedal spasm, while the high concentration can cause depressed nerve conductivity and muscle rigor.

For coagulation of blood :

Calcium is one of the factor in the blood coagulation (blood clotting) cascade. Low blood calcium level will cause reduction in blood clotting ability and increased internal hemorrhage.

As secondary and tertiary messenger in hormone action :

Calcium acts as a messenger for the hormones to act on their target organs and to elicit desirable function. Low level of calcium will impair the adequate target – action ability.

References :

Textbook of physiology by Guyton

Review of internal medicine by Harrisons

Textbook of oral pathology by Shafers.




Have you ever stuck up with choosing the oil for cooking ??? Here are some facts to be considered and to know before choosing the oils… For the country like india we are definitely not on the right track for choosing oils. Earlier people use to consume oil of what they get from their locality( for eg, south they preferred coconut and sesame oils, east and north with mustard oil, west and centre with groundnut oil) … They did cold compressed process to make it edible…All of a sudden everything was inversed and industrialized refined oils started to rule us…. Does it have impact on our health !!!!!

For an instance, we all know there are increase in cardiovascular diseases (heart problems) in india on recent decades. Do that have correlation with the oils we use now??? yes, it does….

Firstly what are essential oils and why are they  required!!!!!

Certain fatty acids like linoleic acid, linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid( EPA), decosahexanoic acid (DHA) which are all certain unsaturated fatty acids are cannot be synthesized by our body and so we depend on plants and other animals as a source of supplement.

Why are they necessary!!!!

  • They are required for fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
  • For transporting certain essential elements from in and out of the cell
  • To maintain the integrity of the cell membrane
  • They are responsible for the synthesis of certain vital substances like prostaglandins, prostacyclin, thromboxane, leukotriene etc .. which plays an important role in body defense mechanism, as a platelet aggregation and to stop bleeding, etc.

Thus certain amount of oil intake per day in our regular diet is essential. For an optimal health benefit, try to limit the total fat intake to 25-30 percent of your total calorie intake.

So now, we all talk about trans fats, saturated FA, mono unsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, omega 3 and 6 FA!!! What are their clinical significance and which one is necessary for the healthy life!!!! Here comes a brief idea…

Saturated fatty acids (SFA):

  • They are the major component of meat products ( mainly red meat) making it white greasy and soilds at room temperature
  • Other main sources are dairy products and palm oils
  • consumption of saturated fats causes imcreased incidence of coronary heart disease by increasing total plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, and increased risk of prostrate and colon cancer

Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA):

  • It lowers both plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol but maintains or increase HDL cholesterol thus decreasing incidence of coronary heart disease.
  • Olive oil is rich in MUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA):

  • consumption of omega 6 PUFA lower plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol but HDL cholestrol is also lowered.
  • Consumption of omega 3 PUFA protects from coronary heart diseases and lowering the BP but they have little effect on LDL  or HDL cholesterol levels. Flax seeds, canola oil, soyabean oil, and fish oil ( salmon fish) are their main source.
  • Nuts, avocados, soyabean, sesame oil, cottonseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, safflower oil, mustard oil, groundnut oil , rice bran oil, etc mainly have omega 6 PUFA and minimal amount of MUFA and SFA. 

Now, what are trans fats !!!!

Before knowing about the trans fats, we should know about something called ” SMOKE POINT” . It is the temperature at which the oil starts to burn and smoke.

Why is it so important???

When the oil burns( or reaches it smoke point), the double bonds in unsaturated FA is converted into trans double bonds by partial hydrogenation thus they are chemically unsaturated FA but behave like saturated FA which is termed as trans fatty acid. Dietary intake of trans fatty acids raise the level of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and reduce the HDL cholesterol level thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes... The dietary values referring partial dehydrogenation is nothing but the trans fatty acids.

Reference link for smoke point of different oils

Thus it is very much important of knowing what oil to use for what purpose…


On coming to refined and unrefined oils,
Unrefined / raw/ virgin / extra virgin oils are simply cold compressed oils which are minimal or nil heat processed whereas refined oils are subjected to high temperature inorder to get its texture , deodorize, colourless, and to increase the smoke point. Thus there are maximum chances of undergoing partial dehydrogenation and becoming trans fatty acids.

Thus choosing up an oil have a silent and critical role to play with our health and fitness.



Choke and its management

Choking occurs when a foreign object enters into the windpipe and block any of its pathway. We generally encounter it while having food and we cough to expel it out. What if it doesn’t comes out?? What if it goes serious??? How serious it can go and what complication it can cause !!!


Not only food, any foreign object entering the windpipe causes choke. When it occludes the airway, oxygen supply to the brain will start to deplete and now the alarm begins.

Signs and symptoms of choke includes,

  • Inability to talk
  • Inability to breath or very feeble breath
  • May or may not be able to cough

on severe condition

  • skin turns blue
  • victim becomes unconscious

How to manage if someone choke!!!

1) Back blow :

First position the victim slightly forward and give 5 continuous back blow inbetween the shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. If the object expels out, make the victim to most comfortable position.

2) Abdominal thrusts :

If the victim is not pregnant or too obese, and still the object is inside, give abdominal thrusts. Stand behind the victim and wrap around the waist. Place the clenched fist just above the navel and wrap the fist with the other hand. Give 5 quick inward and upward thrust as if lifting the whole body.



Repeat both the process until the object expelled out or the person starts to breath or the person becomes unconscious.

Remove the object from the mouth only if you could see it. Do not simply sweep the finger inside the mouth as this may push the object more inward.

If there is no one to help, still abdominal thrust can be done by taking support from a hard object like chair or any counter top.



If the person is pregnant or too obese, the chest thrust should be given by placing the fist little high to the normal position, more precisely at the base of the chest bone.


If the person becomes unconscious before or after the object expels out, call for the ambulance and start giving CPR Cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR)