Diabetes could cause immense damages. It will not only affect the internal organs. But also it has its own hazardous effects on the oral cavity and the associated structures.
Effects of diabetes on the oral cavity
Effect on gums :
Diabetes will influence the onset and course of gum diseases. As such, gums may not weaken because of diabetes directly. But it will alter the gum response to the local irritants. This hastens the destruction of the gum structures. Also, inflammation of the gums is quite common. Certainly, this will weaken the tooth and the associated bone structures.
Reduced immunity and oral candidiasis :
In general, diabetic patients are less immune as compared to normal people. Because of reduced immunity, you are prone to superinfections. Importantly, superinfection with a fungal disease called candidiasis is frequently seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes.
Impaired healing mechanism :
Raised blood sugar level affects the collagen mechanism. This could as such reduces the healing process. Also, Dry socket is frequent with diabetic tooth extraction. This would apparently show delayed healing and impaired immunological balance.
Burning mouth :
Chronic diabetes could cause atrophy of the taste buds. Along with other unexplained causative factors, diabet4s could cause burning mouth, paraesthesia, altered taste sensation and weakness of oral muscle.
Neuropathy and arteriosclerotic damages :
Degeneration of nerve fibres and increased stiffening of end blood vessels in diabetes could cause decreased blood flow and sensation to the tooth and other oral structures.
Dry mouth :
Dry mouth is common in diabetic patients due to impaired function of salivary glands. In some cases, asymptomatic bilateral enlargement of salivary glands could occur.
Because of the consequences, it is pretty important to maintain your blood sugar level under control. In spite of that, you may reasonably undergo multiple health issues with raised blood glucose in the body.
Textbook of oral medicine by Anil Govindrao Ghom